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Like most specialized translations, legal translation is a subtle discipline within which cultural, historical, linguistic, legislative and jurisprudence references are in permanent interaction. Each country has a specific legal system built on principles and modes of operation directly from its history and its cultural characteristics. Closely related to the language that conveys them, legal systems can take several forms on different parts of the globe. For example, the "common law", "civil law", "customary law", "Islamic law", or even different families of law as "Napoleonic" law, 'German Austrian' law, law "mixed civil law", etc... Within the same legal ...
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Reviewing the schedule of values: What architects should look for By Bill Schmalz, FAIA A CCA white paper, submitted November 7, 2017   For most construction projects, the architect has an essential monthly task: reviewing the contractor’s application of payment. But for all but the most simple projects, how is the architect to determine if the work is, say, 45% complete, as the contractor claims, or only 40%? Since overpaying contractors can result in problems at the end of the project (for owners and architects, of course, but also for contractors [1] ), this is a serious matter. To make a reasonably accurate estimate of how complete the project ...
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RFIs: What’s good, what’s bad & what’s ugly about them By Eric O. Pempus, FAIA, Esq.   A CCA white paper, submitted January 10, 2018     A simple definition of an RFI, or “Request for Information”: A written and/or graphic communication from a general contractor to the A/E during construction (i.e., after the owner-contractor agreement has been executed), seeking information related to the contract documents prepared by the A/E. This information may concern a wide range of topics, including interpretations, clarifications, additional information, or the discovery of previously unknown or concealed conditions. The A/E’s response to the contractor should ...
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With thanks to Susan Heersema, Bill Schmalz, Sara Beardsley, Robert Wyatt, and Lucas Tryggestad for their contributions. 1. Always keep an electronic record of decisions made and issues discussed on site. If a detail is altered, issue a drawing or sketch so there is no confusion about it later (and if necessary, get it approved by the authorities having jurisdiction). Remember: Some large projects take several years to construct from start to finish, and memories can be short! 2. Require (in Division 01) that the contractor format the submittals schedule in checklist format, organized by specification section, and sequenced in ...
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Gunnar Hubbard, FAIA, has been a sustainable design leader for many years. He has served on the Maine AIA board of directors, he chaired Maine’s COTE chapter for many years—which included organizing a regional leadership summit — and he has worked within the USGBC as well. He is no stranger to AIA COTE, having worked with the team in the 1990s on such efforts as the Greening of the White House. Joining the national AIA COTE Advisory Group at this time feels, he says, like coming full circle. Hubbard is coming back to the AIA, at a time when he believes that architecture needs to take a stronger leadership role in sustainable design. He feels energized to ...
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Happy New Year COTE members! I am honored to assume the 25th chair of the AIA Committee on the Environment Advisory Group and follow in the footsteps of Mary Ann Lazarus, FAIA. Under Mary Ann’s leadership, COTE accomplished much during a period when we witnessed a tumultuous national political climate and a changing environmental climate. These achievements include publishing The Habits of High-Performance Firms, collaborating with Architecture 2030 to expand COTE Top Ten for students  and to include paid summer internships, sending letters to DOE and EPA Senate Hearing Committees, and visiting Capitol Hill for follow up. Expanding our advocacy work, we created ...
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We are looking forward to working with our newest COTE Advisory Group members who bring diverse perspectives and wisdom: Vikram Sami, Olson Kundig’s Director of Building Performance, Corey Squire, AIA, Lake | Flato Architects Sustainability Coordinator, Julie Hiromoto, AIA, New York Office Director and Vice President at HKS and Gunnar Hubbard, FAIA, Thornton Tomasetti’s Sustainability practice leader and principal. Recognizing our growing local COTE components and increased need for communication, we introduce two COTE strategists: Communications Ambassador Kira Gould, Allied AIA and Advocacy Ambassador Mike Davis, FAIA. I would like to thank and recognize ...
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MH house, designed by COULSON, has a 90 percent PEUI reduction without any renewable energy system. Image: COULSON NOAA just announced that 2017 was a record year for cost impacts in the US due to extreme weather events and set a new record for cumulative costs. At the same time, there's a growing scientific understanding of the contribution of climate change to these events which indicates this could become a new normal . That’s one reason why this report from the National Institute of Building Sciences, " Natural Hazard Mitigation Saves: 2017 Interim Report ” is so very valuable to architects. It shares a careful analysis involving many federal ...
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By Erica Loynd and Bob Schwartz, co-chairs to the Sustainable Justice Committee   John Swain photographer, courtesy HOK Implementing sustainable features in buildings has frequently been equated with additional cost, maintenance and complexity.  As sustainable initiatives evolve, features accentuating human interaction with the built environment are taking priority. Justice facilities are taking advantage of these attributes and the benefits they have to offer for the owner, staff, and detainees. Post occupancy surveys and statistics indicate these facilities contribute to decreases in staff sick days and turnover rates as well as reductions in recidivism ...
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Erin Persky, Associate AIA, CCHP    In the last article, I introduced the American Institute of Architects – Academy of Architecture for Justice (AIA-AAJ) Courthouse Post-Occupancy Toolkit, including data collection instruments and goals for Toolkit use. This article will expand on the importance of POE Toolkit data collection for the advancement of best practices in courthouse design. Justice architecture professionals often lament the lack of research specific to justice environments. We look to workplace, healthcare, and non-justice civic research for evidence-based design strategies to apply to our projects (I’m a big fan of Charles T. Goodsell’s ...
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By the AAJ Communications Committee   How did you join the Leadership Group? LL: Joining the leadership group came in the form of a surprise call from Liz Minnis. She called, said hello, and then asked if I knew why she was calling. Since I was waist deep in my responsibilities as chair of the JFR, I assumed it was because I had missed a deadline. I think my response was something like “Am I late on a deliverable?” Liz just laughed and then invited me to be part of the group.   I was honored because so many people I hold in high regard have served on the group. I had previously served as chair of the San Francisco Bay Area component of the ...
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By Marayca Lopez i Ferrer, Conference Chair   From Sunday, October 29 through Tuesday, October 31, the AAJ hosted its annual conference in the Queen City of the West: Cincinnati, Ohio. The conference was attended by approximately 200 people and its composition reflected the goal of the conference: gathering together professionals from the fields of planning, architecture, design, and a high-level array of academics, experts from other justice-related disciplines, and university students. This year’s conference was very rich in content, with the level and diversity of discussions providing an outstanding mix of subjects and a diverse set of speakers to ...
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By Jeremy Reding AIA, LEED AP   Over the last two decades, architecture has gone from being designed by generalists to being designed by specialists. Specialists consist of groups or individuals that are experts in a specific field such as law-enforcement, courts, fire-stations, etc. As you might expect, there are many benefits to working with a team of sector specific experts. First off, the client knows that the teams previous experience will eliminate many of the unknowns. Second, the design team is able to educate the client on industry best-practices. Lastly, you can expect better cost-control because the team knows the building type. One disadvantage ...
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Steven E Loomis, FAIA and Brittany Naylor Raffin, AIA     “Only 1% of all evidence stored will be presented in court.” -  Joe Latta, Executive Director of IAPE    Police departments and officers are increasingly faced with a mountain of evidence and new rules and regulations that impact operations.  The technology requirements for these spaces can be complex and require special detailed design.  This article is a follow up to our presentation at the Academy of Architecture for Justice Conference 2017 recently held in Cincinnati and is intended to further articulate some the trends and responses in police facility design.  Collaborating with Sergeant ...
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Letter from the Chair The AAJ Communications Committee is pleased to present the 2017 4th Quarter Journal. Thank you to the committee members for another great year! This is the season to reflect and give thanks.  Our first report is from our Conference Chair, Marayca Lopez i Ferrer, here she summarizes a great 2017 conference.  Have a look, there are some familiar faces and memories. We are also excited to be following up on several initiatives this issue: Continuing our series “Get to Know your LG “, we have an interview with our latest outgoing member, Lorenzo Lopez.  His continued passion and energy for the AAJ is impressive and admirable.  As ...
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The glass subway tile backsplash is trendy, and this can be seen in most home remodelling magazines that are published worldwide. Therefore, when you are renovating your home or building a new one, you might want to use the glass subway tile backsplash in your master bedroom bathroom or the kitchen. However, before you consider installing the glass subway tile backsplash you probably have to consider the fact that it can be a monumental investment and so you should get it right from the beginning. This is because it can be costly to undo once you have chosen to install them in your home. So what are some of the advantages of considering the use of the glass ...
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East or west, home is best, and therefore it is worth investing in home beautification. Having a beautiful yard , a well-maintained lawn makes your home a place you will want to be. This is the reason why landscaping and garden maintenance are important. When landscaping your home, you need to ensure you plant attractive flowers and some nice shrubs in your garden. You can find the shrubs and flowers for your home gardening project at the tree center. Here are some of the reasons why you need to ensure you do a proper landscaping of your garden in 2018.   Your Front Garden Is a Welcome Mat in Your Home   The appearance of your front yard is what ...
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Dear SPPers, Good day and Happy New Year.  I am hopeful this note finds you well.  My name is Kurt Weaver, and I am an architect from Cleveland, Ohio, and will be your AIA SPP KC AG Chair for 2018.  I will try to use as many AIA acronyms as possible.  We joked about an entire presentation in AIA isms…  Many of you are familiar with the activities of the SPP, for those of you who are not, we try to get as much done annually as possible.  There are five of us along with Susan and Akanksha from The Institute KC Team.  Our group has been referred to as “special personality people”.  We took it as a compliment… For me, the SPP has been that introduction ...
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Would you love to renovate your home every few years? If so, you’re definitely not alone. Millions of people are currently sitting in the same boat. The only thing stopping them from taking action is the money they don’t want to throw away. Things would be a lot different if you could find special deals. You would still have money to tuck away in a savings account every month. Do you know where can you go to hunt them down? Let’s discuss a few places you should start looking into. Search For Wonderful Coupon Sites You used to hear stories about people spending hours cutting out coupons. Some of them ended up saving tens of thousands ...
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According to the New York Times , the year 2017 set a high record of losses following the deadliest natural disasters experienced. The news reporter says that the world’s largest insurer is set to pay a record $135 billion as a result of these calamities. Overall, the insured and non-insured losses total to $330 billion. Therefore, the 2017 losses are second to the 2011 losses that were suffered in Japan. This shows that close to half of the losses will not be paid because they were uninsured. This brings us to the need of taking insurance cover for your property. Have you insured the house you live in? Most people forget that the house important than ...
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